The Garden

 

The Herb Garden.

The Hyland House garden is an early eighteenth-century period garden.

The front parlor garden and the rear kitchen garden would have been surrounded by wooden fences for protection against animals. Plants with aromatic, culinary, medicinal, and ornamental uses were typically mixed together in raised beds.

The following list of period-appropriate plants consists of plants that are native to Connecticut or those known to have been introduced in domestic New England gardens by 1713. Plants marked with an asterisk are grown in the Hyland House garden.

*Achillea millefolium. Yarrow. Herbaceous perennial. Introduced. “An ointment is made of it for the piles and it is reckoned good against the scab in sheep.” (Phillip Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

Aconitum napellus. Wolfsbane. Herbaceous perennial. Introduced.

*Allium ampeloprasum. Leek. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

*Allium schoenoprasium. Chives. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

 *Allium x proliferum. Egyptian onion. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

*Althaea rosea. French mallow. Annual. Introduced.

Amaranthus caudatus. Love-lies-bleeding.  Annual. Introduced.

Amaranthus tricolor. Joseph’s coat. Annual. Introduced.

Anaphalis margaritacea. Cudweed. Perennial. Nati ve.

 *Anchusa sempervirens. Bugloss. Perennial. Introduced.

Anemone coronaria. Windflower. Annual. Introduced.

 *Anemone hortensis. Emanies. Perennial. Introduced.

Anethum graveolens. Dill. Annual. Introduced.

Angelica archangelica. Angelica. Perennial. Introduced.

*Anthemis nobilis.Chamomile. Perennial. Introduced.

Anthriscus cerefolium. Chervil. Annual. Introduced.

Antirrhinum majus. Snapdragons. Annual. Introduced.

 *Aquilegia vulgaris. Columbine. Perennial. Introduced. “The root, the herb, the flowers, and the seeds have been recommended to be used medicinally…but this plant is of a suspicious tribe, and Linnaeus affirms as of his own knowledge, that children have lost their lives by an over dose of it. The virtues ascribed to a tincture of the flowers, as an anti-phlogistic, and for strengthening the gums, and deterging scorbutic ulcers in the mouth, appear to be better founded.” (Joseph Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

*Aronia arbutifolia. Chokeberry. Shrub. Native.

 *Artemisia abrotanum. Southernwood. Perennial. Introduced.

*Artemisia dracunculus. Tarragon. Perennial. Native.

Asphodelus luteus. Asphodell. Perennial. Introduced.

Bellis perennis. Common daisy. Herbaceous perennial. Introduced.

Borago officinalis. Borage. Annual. Introduced.

Brassica nigra. Black mustard. Annual. Introduced.

*Buxus sempervirens. Boxwood. Evergreen shrub. Introduced.

Calendula officinalis. Marygold. Annual. Introduced. The flowers “were dried in order to be boiled in broth: from a fancy that they are comforters of the heart and spirits.” (John Gerarde, Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes, 1597)

*Campanula persicifolia. Peach-leaved bellflower. Perennial. Introduced.

Campanula pyramidalis. Bellflower. Perennial. Annual. Introduced.

Campanula rapunculoides. Creeping bellflower. Perennial. Introduced.

Campanula trachelium. Coventry bells. Perennial. Introduced.

Carum carvi. Caraway. Annual. Introduced.

Centaurea cyanus. Cornflower. Annual. Introduced. “The root is reckoned to be binding, and good for all kinds of fluxes, and of great use to heal wounds…. The expressed juice of the neutral florets makes a good ink.” (Phillip Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

*Centaurea centaurium. Centaurea. Perennial. Introduced.

Centranthus ruber. Red valerian. Herbaceous perennial. Introduced.

Cercis siliquastrum. Judas tree. Deciduous tree. Introduced.

Chamaemelum nobilis. Chamomile. Perennial. Introduced.

Cheiranthus cheiri. Wallflower. Perennial. Introduced.

Chelidonium majus. Celandine poppy. Perennial. Introduced. “the juice of every part of this plant is acrimonius. It cures tetters and ringworms. Diluted with milk it consumes white opaque spots on the eyes. It destroys warts, and cures the itches.” (Phillip Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum. Oxe-eye daisy  Perennial. Introduced.

*Cimicifuga racemosa. Black cohosh. Perennial. Introduced.

*Clethra alnifolia. Summersweet. Shrub. Native.

Colchicum autumnale. Colchicum. Perennial. Introduced.

*Convallaria majalis. Lily of the valley. Perennial. Introduced. “An oyle of the flowers hereof, which…is very effectual to ease the paine of the Gout, and such like diseases.” (Parkinson, Paradisi)

Coriandrum sativum. Coriander. Annual. Introduced.

*Cornus amomum. Silky dogwood. Deciduous shrub. Native.

*Cornus florida. Flowering dogwood. Deciduous tree. Native.

Cornus mas. Cornelian cherry. Deciduous tree. Introduced.

*Cornus sericea. Red twig dogwood. Deciduous shrub. Native.

*Cotinus coggygria. Smokebush. Deciduous shrub. Introduced.

*Crocus flavus. Yellow crocus. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

Crocus sativus. Saffron. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

Crocus vernus. Crocus. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

*Cytisus scoparius. Scotch broom. Perennial. Introduced.

Datura stramonium. Thornapple. Annual. Introduced.

Delphinium ajacis. Upright lark’s heel. Annual. Introduced. “The seed of the garden larckes spurre drunken is very good agaynst the stinking of scorpions, and in deede his vertue is so great against their poyson, that the only herbe throwen before the scorpions, doth cause them to be without force or power to do hurte, so they may not move or sturre, until this herbe be taken from them. (J. Dodoens, A Niewe Herball, 1578)

Delphinium consolida. Lark’s heel. Annual. Introduced. (“The expressed juice of the petals, with the addition of a little alum, makes a good blue ink.(Phillip Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

*Dianthus barbatus. Sweet William. Perennial. Introduced.

Dianthus caryophyllus. Clove-gilliflower. Perennial. Introduced.

*Dicentra eximia. Fringed bleeding heart. Perennial. Native.

Dictamnus albus. Fraxinella. Perennial. Introduced. “It is held to be profitable against the stingings of serpents, against contagious and pestilent diseases, and to bring down the feminine courses, for the pains of the belly, and the stone, and in epilepticall diseases, and other cold pains of the brains: the root is the most effectual for all these, yet the seed is sometimes used. (John Parkinson, Paradisi in sole, Paradisus Terrestris, 1629)

Digitalis purpurea. Digitalis. Annual. Introduced. Used as a diuretic.

Epimedium alpinum. Epimedium. Perennial. Introduced.

Eranthus hyemalis. Eranthus. Perennial. Introduced.

Eryngium maritimum. Sea holly. Perennial. Introduced.

Erythronium dens-canis. Dogtooth violet. Perennial. Introduced. “The naturall people hold not onely to be singular to procure lust, but hold it as a secret, loth to reveale it.” (John Parkinson, Paradisi in sole, Paradisus Terrestris, 1629)

*Foeniculum vulgare. Fennel. Perennial. Introduced.

*Fragaria virginiana. Strawberry. Perennial. Native.

Fritillaria imperialis. Crown imperial. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

Fritillaria meleagris. Checkered lily. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

*Galium odoratum. Sweet woodruff. Perennial. Introduced.

*Geranium macrorrhizum. Long-rooted cranesbill. Perennial. Introduced.

Geranium robertianum. Herb Robert. Annual. Native. “A decoction of Herb Robert has been known to give relieve in callous cases.” (Phillip Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

Geranium sanguinium. Geranium. Perennial. Introduced.

Geranium tuberosum. Tuberous-rooted cranesbill. Perennial. Introduced.

Gladiolus byzantinus. Corne Flagg of Constantinople. Annual. Introduced.

Gladiolus communis. French Corne Flagg. Annual. Introduced.

Gladiolus. Corn flag. Annual. Introduced.

Glechoma hederacea. Ground ivy. Perennial. Introduced. “Bruised and put into the eares, taketh away the humming and noise of ringing sounds of the same, and is good for such as are harde of hearing.” (R. Dodoens, A Niewe Herball, 1578)

Glycyrrhiza glabra. Licorice. Annual. Introduced.

Gomphrena globosa. Bachelors Button. Annual. Introduced.

*Hamamelis virginiana. Witch hazel. Deciduous shrub. Native.

Helianthus annuus. Sunflower. Annual. Introduced. “Sometimes the heads of the Sun-flower are dressed, and eaten as Hartichokes are, and are accounted of some to be good meat, but they are too strong from my taste. (Phillip Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

Helichrysum stoechas. Strawflower. Perennial. Introduced.

*Helleborus niger. Hellebore. Perennial. Introduced. “It seems to have been principally from its purgative qualities that the ancients esteemed this root such a powerful remedy in maniacal disorders.” (Phillip Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

Hemerocallis fulva. Red asphodel lily. Perennial. Introduced.

*Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus. Wash-house lilies. Perennial. Introduced.

Hepatica nobilis. Hepatica. Perennial. Native.

Hesperis matrionalis. Dame’s rocket. Annual. Introduced.

*Hibiscus syriacus. Rose of Sharon. Deciduous shrub. Introduced.

*Humulus lupulus. Hops. Perennial. Native.

Hyacinthoides non-scripta. Bluebell. Perennial. Introduced.

Hyacinthus orientalis. Hyacinth. Perennial. Introduced. “The roots of Hyacinthe boyled in wine and dronken, stoppeth the belly, provoketh urine, and helpeth much agaynst the venemous bitings of the field Spidder.” (R. Dodoens, A Niewe Herball, 1578)

*Hydrangea arborescens. HortensiaShrub. Native.

Hyssopus officinalis. Issop. Perennial. Introduced.

Iberis umbellata. Candytuft. Perennial. Introduced.

Impatiens balsamina. Balsam. Annuals. Introduced.

Inula helenium. Elecampane. Perennial. Introduced. “The root is esteemed a good pectoral, and a conserve of it is recommended in disorders of the breast and lungs, as good to produce expectoration. An infusion of it fresh, sweetened with honey, is said to be an excellent medicine in the hooping cough. Bruised and macerated in urine, with balls of ashes and whortleberries, it dyes a blue colour.” (Phillip Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

Ipomea nil. Blew bindweed. Annual. Introduced.

*Iris germanica. Florentine iris. Perennial. Introduced.

Iris persica. Persian Iris. Perennial. Introduced.

Iris pseudacorus. Yellow flagg. Perennial. Introduced.

Iris pumila. Flag iris. Perennial. Introduced.

Iris sibirica. Hungarian iris. Perennial. Introduced.

Iris susiana. Great Turkie Flower de Luce. Perennial. Introduced.

Iris variegata. Yellow Flower de Luce. Perennial. Introduced.

Isatis tinctoria. Woad. Perennial. Introduced. An important source of blue dye.

*Kalmia latifolia. Mountain laurel. Evergreen shrub. Native.

Lamium purpureum. Red dead nettle. Herbaceous perennial. Introduced.

Lathyrus latifolius. Sweet peas. Perennial. Introduced.

Lavandula officinalis. Lavender. Perennial. Introduced.

Lepiduium sativum. Cress. Annual. Introduced.

Leucojum aestivum.  Summer snow drop. Perennial. Introduced.

Leucojum autumnale. Leucojum. Perennial. Introduced.

Leopoldia comosa. Grape hyacinth. Perennial. Introduced.

Leucojum aestivum. Summer snow-drop. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

Leucojum autumnale. Autumnal snow-drop. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

Levisticum officinale. Lovage. Perennial. Introduced.

Lilium canadense. Spotted Martagon lily. Perennial. Native.

Lilium candidum. White lily. Perennial. Introduced. “The water of the flowers distilled…is used…of divers women outwardly, for their faces, to cleanse the skin, and make it white and fresh.” (John Parkinson, Paradisi in sole, Paradisus Terrestris, 1629)

Lilium martagon. Martagon imperiale. Perennial. Introduced.

Linaria vulgaris. Toad flax. Herbaceous perennial. Introduced. “The juice, mixed with milk, is poison to flies.” (Phillip Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

*Lindera benzoin. Spicebush. Deciduous shrub. Native.

Linum usitatissimum. Flax. Annual. Introduced.

*Lobelia cardinalis. Cardinal flower. Perennial. Native.

Lupinus albus. White lupine. Annual. Introduced.

Lupinus hirsutus. Great blue lupine. Annual. Introduced.

*Lupinus perennis. Lupine. Perennial. Native.

Lychnis chalcedonica. Rose campion. Perennial. Introduced.

Lycopersicum esculentum. Tomato. Annual. Introduced. “In the hot countries where they naturally grown, they are much eaten of the people…. We only have them for curiousity in our gardens, and for the amorous aspect or beauty of the fruit.” (John Parkinson, Paradisi in sole, Paradisus Terrestris, 1629)

Magnolia virginiana. Sweetbay magnolia. Deciduous tree. Native.

*Majoran hortensis. Swee marjoram. Perennial. Introduced.

Marabilis jalapa. Marvel-of-Peru. Annual. Introduced.

Matthiola incana. Stock-gilliflower. Annual. Introduced.

*Melissa officinalis. Balm. Perennial. Introduced.

Mentha arvensis. Corn mint. Perennial. Native.

Mentha longifolia. Horse mint. Perennial. Native.

*Mentha piperata. Peppermint. Perennial. Introduced.

Mentha pulegium. Pennyroyal. Perennial. Introduced.

Mentha spicata. Spearmint. Perennial. Introduced.

Mimosa pudica. Sensitive plant. Annual. Native.

Mirabalis jalapa. Four o’clocks. Annual. Introduced.

*Monarda fistulosa. Blue monarda. Perennial. Native.

*Muscari botryoides. Great grape flower. Perennial. Introduced.

Muscari racemosum. Blew grape flower. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

Myrica cerifera. Bayberry. Evergreen shrub. Native. “Candles of this kind do not easily bend or melt in summer…. They burn better and slower, nor do thy cause any smoak…. A soap is made from the fat which has an agreeable scent, and is excellent for shaving.” (Phillip Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

Myrrhis odorata. Sweet cicely. Perennial. Introduced.

Narcissus. Daffadown dillies. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

Narcissus jonquilla. Common jonquil. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

Narcissus odorus. Sweet-scented narcissus. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

Narcissus poeticus. Poet’s narcissus. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

Narcissus pseudonarcissus. Wild daffodil.

Narcissus tazetta. Polyanthus narcissus. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

Narcissus triandrus. Rush-leaved daffodil. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

Narcissus x bifloris. Primrose peerless. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

*Nepeta cataria. Catnip. Perennial. Introduced.

*Nicotiana tabacum. Tobacco. Annual. Introduced.

Nigella damascena. Nigella. Annual. Introduced.

Ocimum basilicum. Basil. Annual.

Ophrys apifera. Bee flower. Perennial. Introduced.

*Origanum vulgare. Oregano. Perennial.

Ornithogalum umbellatum. Star of Bethlehem. Perennial. Introduced.

Ocimum basilicum. Basil. Annual. Introduced.

*Paeonia officinalis. Peony. Perennial.

Papaver rhoeas. Poppy. Annual. Introduced.

Papaver somniferum. White poppy. Annual. Introduced.

Parietaria officinalis. Paritary. Perennial. Introduced. “The dried herbe paritary made up with honey into an electuarie, or the juice of the herb, or the decoction thereof made up with Sugar or Hony, is a singular remedy for any old continuall or dry cough. (Miller)

Petroselinum crispum. Parsley. Annual. Introduced.

Petroselinum latifolium. Flat leaf parsley. Annual. Introduced.

*Philadelphus coronaries. Mock orange. Deciduous shrub.

*Physalis alkekengi. Winterberry. Perennial. Introduced. It was originally grown for the fruits which were used medicinally. It is now know mostly grown for inflated bright orange calyces.

Pimpinella anisum. Anise. Annual.

Portulaca oleracea. Purslane. Annual.

Primula auricula. Bear’s ears. Perennial.

*Primula veris. Cowslip. Perennial.

*Primula vulgaris. Cowslip. Perennial.

*Prunus virginiana. Wild cherry. Deciduous shrub.

Pulmonaria officinalis. Lungwort. Perennial. Introduced. “Singular good for ulcered lungs, that are full of rotten matter.” (Parkinson, Paradisi)

*Quercus alba. White oak. Deciduous tree.

Ranunculus acris. Yellow batchelor’s buttons. Herbaceous perennial. Introduced.

Ranunculs aconitifolius. Fair maid of France. Perennial. Introduced.

Ranunculus asiaticus. Crowfoot. Perennial. Introduced.

Ranunculus bulbosus. Bulbous crowfoot. Perennial. Introduced.

Ranunculus gramineus. Grassy crowfoot. Perennial. Introduced.

*Rheum rhaponticum. Rhubarb. Perennial. Introduced.

Rosmarinus officinalis. Rosemary. Annual. Introduced.

Rubia tinctorum. Madder. Perennial. Introduced.

*Rudbeckia hirta. Ox-eye daisy. Perennial. Native.

 *Rumex acetosa. Sorrel. Perennial.

Rumex patientia. Dock. Perennial. Introduced.

*Ruta graveolens. Rue. Perennial. Introduced.

*Salvia officinalis. Sage. Perennial. Introduced.

Salvia sclarea. Clary. Annual. Introduced.

Sanguinaria canadensis. Bloodroot. Herbaceous perennial. Native.

Sanguisorba officinalis. Burnett. Herbaceous perennial. Native.

Santolina chamaecyparissus. Santolina. Perennial. Introduced.

*Saponaria officinalis. Soapwort. Perennial.

Satureja hortensis. Summer savory. Annual. Introduced.

*Satureja montana. Winter savory. Perennial. Introduced.

Scabiosa atropurpurea. Scabiosa. Annual. Introduced.

*Sempervivum tectorum. Houseleek. Perennial.

Sium sisarum. Skirret. Perennial. Introduced.

Spiraea salicifolia. Spirea. Deciduous shrub

*Stachys byzantine. Lamb’s ears. Perennial.

Staphylea pinnata. European bladdernut. Deciduous shrub. Introduced. “We never yet could learne that they were accepted among our people, except with some strong clownish stomache, which can almost digest an horse naile.” (John Parkinson, Theatrum botanicum, 1640).

Symphyotrichum tradescantii. Starwort. Perennial. Native.

Symphytum officinale. Comfrey. Perennial. Introduced.

*Syringa vulgaris. Lilac. Deciduous shrub.

Tagetes erecta. Aztec marygold. Introduced.

Tagetes patula. Marygold. Introduced.

*Tanacetum balsamita. Costmary. Perennial. Introduced.

Tanacetum parthenium. Feverfew. Perennial. Introduced. The leaves and flowers of this are used in medicine, and are particularly appropriated to the female sex, being of great service in all cold flatulent disorders of the womb, and hysterick affections procuring the catamenia, and expelling the birth and secundines. (Phillip Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

Tanaetum vulgare. Tansy. Perennial.

*Taraxacum officinale. Dandelion. Perennial.

Teucrium chamaedrys. Germander. Perennial. Introduced. “Esteemed chiefly as a mild aperient and corroborant: and was recommended in uterine obstructions, intermitting fevers, rheumatism and gout.” (Phillip Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

Thalictrum flavum. Meadow rue. Perennial

*Thuja occidentalis. Arborvitae. Evergreen shrub.

Thymus serpyllum.  Thyme. Perennial. Introduced.

*Thymus vulgaris. Garden thyme. Perennial. Introduced.

Tropaeolum majus. Nasturtium. Annual.

Tulipa clusiana. Tulip. Annual.

Tulipa gesneriana. Tulip. Bulbous perennial. Introduced

Valerian officinalis. Valerian. Perennial. Introduced.

Verbascum blattaria. Moth mullein. Introduced.

Verbascum thapsus. Mullein. Annual. Introduced. “Recommended as emollients both internally and externally. A pint of cow’s milk with a handful of leaves, boiled in it to half a pint, sweetened with sugar, strained and taken at bed-time, is a pleasant emollient and nutritious medicine for allaying a cough, and more particularly for taking off the pain and irritation of the piles. (Miller0

Viburnum opulus. Viburnum. Deciduous shrub.

Viola odorata. Violets. Herbaceous perennial. Introduced. “The flowers of violets. taken in the quantity of a dram or two, act as a mild laxative…. The syrup is very useful in chemistry, to detect an acid or an alkali.” (Phillip Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

Viola tricolor. Pansy. Annual.