The Garden

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The Herb Garden.

The Hyland House garden is an early-eighteenth-century period garden.

All the plants in the garden are either native to Connecticut or were known to have been cultivated in domestic New England gardens in 1713 when the house was built.

The front parlor garden and the rear kitchen garden would typically have been surrounded by protective fences. Plants with culinary, medicinal, and ornamental uses were mixed together in raised beds.

Achillea millefolium. Yarrow. Herbaceous perennial. Native. Yarrow was used to break a fever by increasing perspiration, to treat hemorrhaging, and to soothe rashes. Native Americans made a tea to cure stomach disorders by steeping the leaves. Phillip Miller’s The Gardener’s Dictionary (1731) noted that “an ointment is made of it for the piles and it is reckoned good against the scab in sheep.”

Allium ampeloprasum. Leek. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

Allium schoenoprasium. Chives. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

 Allium x proliferum. Egyptian onion. Bulbous perennial. Introduced.

Anchusa sempervirens. Bugloss. Perennial. Introduced.

 Anemone hortensis. Emanies. Perennial. Introduced.

Anthemis nobilis.Chamomile. Perennial. Introduced.

Anthriscus cerefolium. Chervil. Annual. Introduced.

Antirrhinum majus. Snapdragons. Annual. Introduced.

 Aquilegia vulgaris. Columbine. Perennial. Introduced. “The root, the herb, the flowers, and the seeds have been recommended to be used medicinally…but this plant is of a suspicious tribe, and Linnaeus affirms as of his own knowledge, that children have lost their lives by an over dose of it. The virtues ascribed to a tincture of the flowers, as an anti-phlogistic, and for strengthening the gums, and deterging scorbutic ulcers in the mouth, appear to be better founded.” (Joseph Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

Aronia arbutifolia. Chokeberry. Shrub. Native.

 Artemisia abrotanum. Southernwood. Perennial. Introduced.

Artemisia dracunculus. Tarragon. Perennial. Native.

Buxus sempervirens. Boxwood. Evergreen shrub. Introduced.

Campanula persicifolia. Peach-leaved bellflower. Perennial. Introduced.

Centaurea centaurium. Centaury. Perennial. Introduced.

Cimicifuga racemosa. Black cohosh. Perennial. Introduced.

Clethra alnifolia. Summersweet. Shrub. Native.

Convallaria majalis. Lily of the valley. Perennial. Introduced. “An oyle of the flowers hereof, which…is very effectual to ease the paine of the Gout, and such like diseases.” (Parkinson, Paradisi)

Cornus amomum. Silky dogwood. Deciduous shrub. Native.

Cornus florida. Flowering dogwood. Deciduous tree. Native.

Cornus sericea. Red twig dogwood. Deciduous shrub. Native.

Cotinus coggygria. Smokebush. Deciduous shrub. Introduced.

Crocus flavus. Golden yellow crocus. Bulbous perennial. This 17th-century heirloom bulb was introduced from Europe. It begins blooming in late March.

Cytisus scoparius. Scotch broom. Perennial. Introduced.

Dianthus barbatus. Sweet William. Perennial. Introduced.

Dicentra eximia. Fringed bleeding heart. Perennial. Native.

Foeniculum vulgare. Fennel. Perennial. Introduced.

Fragaria virginiana. Strawberry. Perennial. Native.

Galium odoratum. Sweet woodruff. Perennial. Introduced.

Geranium macrorrhizum. Long-rooted cranesbill. Perennial. Introduced.

Hamamelis virginiana. Witch hazel. Deciduous shrub. Native.

Helleborus niger. Hellebore. Perennial. Introduced. “It seems to have been principally from its purgative qualities that the ancients esteemed this root such a powerful remedy in maniacal disorders.” (Phillip Miller, The Gardener’s Dictionary, 1731)

Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus. Wash-house lilies. Perennial. Introduced.

Hibiscus syriacus. Rose of Sharon. Deciduous shrub. Introduced.

Humulus lupulus. Hops. Perennial. Native.

Hydrangea arborescens. HortensiaShrub. Native.

Iris germanica. Florentine iris. Perennial. Introduced.

Kalmia latifolia. Mountain laurel. Evergreen shrub. Native.

Lavandula officinalis. Lavender. Perennial. Introduced.

Lindera benzoin. Spicebush. Deciduous shrub. Native.

Lobelia cardinalis. Cardinal flower. Perennial. Native.

Lunaria annua. Honesty. Biennial. Introduced.

Lupinus perennis. Lupine. Perennial. Native.

Majoran hortensis. Swee marjoram. Perennial. Introduced.

Melissa officinalis. Balm. Perennial. Introduced.

Mentha piperata. Peppermint. Perennial. Introduced.

Monarda fistulosa. Bee balm. Perennial. Native.

Muscari botryoides. Great grape flower. Perennial. Introduced.

Nepeta cataria. Catnip. Perennial. Introduced.

Nicotiana tabacum. Tobacco. Annual. Introduced.

Origanum vulgare. Oregano. Perennial.

Paeonia officinalis. Peony. Perennial.

Philadelphus coronaries. Mock orange. Deciduous shrub.

Physalis alkekengi. Winterberry. Perennial. Introduced. It was originally grown for the fruits which were used medicinally. It is now know mostly grown for inflated bright orange calyces.

Primula vulgaris. Cowslip. Perennial.

Prunus virginiana. Wild cherry. Deciduous shrub.

Quercus alba. White oak. Deciduous tree.

Rheum rhaponticum. Rhubarb. Perennial. Introduced.

Rudbeckia hirta. Ox-eye daisy. Perennial. Native.

 Rumex acetosa. Sorrel. Perennial.

Ruta graveolens. Rue. Perennial. Introduced.

Salvia officinalis. Sage. Perennial. Introduced.

Saponaria officinalis. Soapwort. Perennial.

Satureja montana. Winter savory. Perennial. Introduced.

Sempervivum tectorum. Houseleek. Perennial.

Stachys byzantine. Lamb’s ears. Perennial.

Syringa vulgaris. Lilac. Deciduous shrub.

Tanacetum balsamita. Costmary. Perennial. Introduced.

Taraxacum officinale. Dandelion. Perennial.

Thuja occidentalis. Arborvitae. Evergreen shrub.

Thymus vulgaris. Garden thyme. Perennial. Introduced.